For research use only. Not Intended for Therapeutic Use!
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Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria.
Betaine exerts its isostabilizing effect without appreciably altering the conformation of double-stranded DNA from the B form. The presence of > 5 M betaine also does not greatly change the behavior of DNA as a polyelectrolyte; this lack of effect on electrostatic interactions is expected because betaine exists as a zwitterion near neutral pH . Betaine improves the co-amplification of the two alternatively spliced variants of the prostate-specific membrane antigen mRNA as well as the amplification of the coding cDNA region of c-jun. It is suggested that betaine improves the amplification of these genes by reducing the formation of secondary structure caused by GC-rich regions and, therefore, may be generally applicable to ameliorate the amplification of GC-rich DNA sequences .
. Rees, W.A., et al., Betaine can eliminate the base pair composition dependence of DNA melting. Biochemistry, 1993. 32(1): p. 137-44.
. Henke, W., et al., Betaine improves the PCR amplification of GC-rich DNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res, 1997. 25(19): p. 3957-8.