Chloroquine- CAS 54-05-7
Chloroquine is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. Chloroquine is an autophagy and toll-like receptors (TLRs) inhibitor. Chloroquine is highly effective in the control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in vitro (EC50=1.13 μM).
Chloroquine (CHQ, 20 μM) inhibits IL-12p70 release and reduces Th1-priming capacity of activated human monocyte-derived Langerhans-like cells (MoLC). Chloroquine (20 μM) enhances IL-1–induced IL-23 secretion in MoLC and subsequently increases IL-17A release by primed CD4+ T cells. Chloroquine (25 μM) suppresses MMP-9 mRNA expression in normoxia and hypoxia in parental MDA-MB-231 cells. Chloroquine has cell-, dose- and hypoxia-dependent effects on MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13 mRNA expression. TLR7 and TLR9 inhibition using IRS-954 or chloroquine significantly reduces HuH7 cell proliferation in vitro.
Chloroquine (0.01-100 μM; 48 hours) potently blocked virus infection (vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2) at low-micromolar concentration (EC50=1.13 μM). Chloroquine blocks virus infection by increasing endosomal pH required for virus/cell fusion, as well as interfering with the glycosylation of cellular receptors of SARS-CoV.
Chloroquine (80 mg/kg, i.p.) does not prevent the growth of the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells with high or low TLR9 expression levels in the orthotopic mouse model.
TLR7 and TLR9 inhibition using IRS-954 or chloroquine significantly inhibits tumour growth in the mouse xenograft model. HCC development in the DEN/NMOR rat model is also significantly inhibited by Chloroquine.
* For research use only. Not for human or veterinary use.