1. Parasitol Res. 2019 Apr;118(4):1289-1297. doi: 10.1007/s00436-019-06248-3. Epub 2019 Feb 12.First study of topical selamectin efficacy for treating cats naturally infected with Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi under field conditions.
Sarasombath PT(1), Thammapalo S(2), Loymek S(2), Angkanasinsiri A(1), Priyavoravong P(3), Wongkamchai S(4).
Lymphatic filariae are important human and animal parasites. Infection by these parasites could lead to severe morbidity and has significant socioeconomic impacts. Topical selamectin is a semi-synthetic macrocyclic lactone that is
widely used to prevent heartworm infection. Up until now, there were no studies that investigated the efficacy of selamectin in lymphatic filariae. Therefore, we aimed to study the chemotherapeutic and chemoprophylactic efficacies of
selamectin use for cats in brugian filariasis-endemic areas in Southern Thailand. To assess chemotherapeutic efficacy of topical selamectin, eight Brugia malayi and six Brugia pahangi microfilaremic cats were treated with a single administration of topical selamectin. For chemoprophylactic efficacy assessment, a single application of topical selamectin was administrated to 9 healthy, uninfected cats. The cats in both groups were subjected to a monthly blood testing for microfilariae and filarial DNA for 1 year. Topical selamectin treatment in B. malayi and B. pahangi microfilaremic cats
showed 100% effectivity in eradicating microfilaremia but only 78.5% effectivity in eliminating filarial DNA. In the chemoprophylactic group, selamectin demonstrated 66.7% efficacy in preventing B. malayi infection. Our findings suggest that a single administration of 6 mg/kg topical selamectin given every two months could effectively prevent B. malayi infection. Application of topical selamectin twice a year could block circulating microfilariae. Since there are no treatment guidelines currently available for lymphatic filarial infection in cats, the data obtained from this study could be used to guide the management of brugian lymphatic filarial infection in reservoir cats.
2. Vet Parasitol. 2019 Jun;270 Suppl 1:S3-S11. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.11.009. Epub 2018 Dec 4.Efficacy and safety of a combination of selamectin plus sarolaner for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations and the treatment of ear mites in cats presented as veterinary patients in the United States.Vatta AF(1), Myers MR(2), Rugg JJ(2), Chapin S(2), Pullins A(2), King VL(2), Rugg D(2).
Two randomised, single-masked, multi-center field studies were conducted in the United States in cats presented as veterinary patients. The first study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a topically applied formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) against natural flea infestations; the second study evaluated its efficacy against natural ear mite infestations. The product was administered topically by the cats' owners at the dose range provided in the market product of 6.0-12.0 mg selamectin and 1.0-2.0 mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. Imidacloprid plus
moxidectin (Advantage® Multi for Cats, Bayer) was used as a positive control in both studies at the label dosage. In the flea study, treatments were administered on Days 0, 30, and 60. Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction of live flea counts on Days 30, 60, and 90 relative to the pre-treatment count. In the ear mite study, a single treatment was applied on Day 0 and efficacy was determined on Days 14 and 30 based on the presence or absence of ear mites. In both studies, patients were randomly allocated to treatments in the ratio of 2:1, selamectin plus sarolaner: imidacloprid plus
moxidectin. In the two studies, 405 cats received treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner; of these, 256 cats received three monthly treatments in the flea study. There were no serious adverse reactions to treatment with selamectin plus
sarolaner; health issues noted were typical of the normal ailments or minor traumatic injuries expected in the general cat population and were similar in both treatment groups. Efficacy against fleas based on geometric (arithmetic) means was 97.2% (95.9%), 99.5% (99.4%), and 99.8% (99.8%) in the selamectin plus sarolaner group and was 79.7% (70.5%), 91.4% (77.3%), and 95.5% (87.4%) in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group on Days 30, 60, and 90, respectively. Flea counts for the selamectin plus sarolaner group were significantly lower than the counts for the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group at all time-points after treatment administration on Day 0 (P < 0.001). Treatment reduced the clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (alopecia, dermatitis/pyodermatitis, erythema, pruritus, scaling, and papules) in affected cats by 86.7%-100% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group and by 66.7%-100% in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group. In the ear mite study, a single application of selamectin plus sarolaner resulted in the clearance of mites from 87.5% of cats within 14 days and 94.4% of cats within 30 days of treatment. The respective percentages of mite-free cats in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group were 64.0% and 72.0%. There were significantly more cats with no mites noted in the selamectin plus sarolaner group than in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group on Day 14 and Day 30 (P ≤ 0.018). Selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus) administered topically at monthly intervals for three months was well tolerated and highly effective for the treatment and prevention of natural infestations of fleas on cats presented as veterinary patients. Clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis improved in affected cats following treatment administration. A single topical treatment was also safe and highly effective for the treatment of ear mite infestations in naturally infested cats.
3. Vet Parasitol. 2019 Jun;270 Suppl 1:S19-S25. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.10.013. Epub 2018 Nov 11.Efficacy of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner against three common tick species infesting cats in the United States.Vatta AF(1), Young DR(2), Everett WR(3), King VL(4), Cherni JA(4), von Reitzenstein M(4), Holzmer SJ(4), Chapin S(4), Rugg D(4).
The efficacy of a single topical application of a combination product containing selamectin and sarolaner (selamectin/sarolaner; Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus) was evaluated in seven laboratory studies against Ixodes scapularis (three studies), Dermacentor variabilis (two studies), or Amblyomma maculatum (two studies). In each study, cats were randomly allocated to treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. On Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33, the cats were infested with unfed adult ticks. On Day 0, cats were treated with either a placebo (vehicle control) or with the spot-on solution at the minimum dose of 6.0 mg selamectin and 1.0 mg sarolaner/kg bodyweight. In one study with I. scapularis and one with D. variabilis an additional group of cats was treated with selamectin alone (Revolution®, Zoetis) at 6.0 mg/kg bodyweight. Tick counts were conducted after treatment and after each weekly re-infestation and efficacy determined relative to placebo-treated animals. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions in any of the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the selamectin/sarolaner-treated groups
compared to the geometric mean tick counts in the placebo-treated groups at all time-points in all studies. For all species, a single topical administration of the selamectin/sarolaner combination resulted in>90% efficacy against existing infestations based on geometric means. Efficacy against weekly re-infestations was >90% based on geometric means for at least 5 weeks for I. scapularis and D. variabilis, and for at least 4 weeks against A. maculatum. Selamectin alone had no efficacy against I. scapularis, where counts on selamectin-treated cats were not significantly different from placebo at all time points (P > 0.05), and for D. variabilis, counts were not significantly different from placebo at 2, 3 and 5 weeks after treatment (P > 0.05) and efficacy was never greater than 85%. Thus, the activity of the sarolaner against three common tick species found on cats in the US is complementary to the existing broad-spectrum parasite control of selamectin. The inclusion of sarolaner with selamectin in a combination product (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus) provides for the treatment of existing tick infestations and gives at least one month of control against re-infestation following a single topical application.