COVID-19

COVID-19

The pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread all over the world and has been a great threat to humans for absence of specific effective anti-viral treatments. It is urgent to identify effective, safe, and available treatment strategy for COVID-19. As COVID-19 is a viral infectious disease with major symptoms of fever and pneumonia, antiviral and anti-inflammation related supportive therapies are important treatments for severe cases.
COVID-19 in caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 belongs to coronavirus (CoV) who have four main structural proteins: spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. After primed by a protease called TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease, serine 2), the S protein mediates the CoV entry into host cells by attaching to a cellular receptor named ACE2, followed by fusion between virus and host cell membranes. Genome replication and subgenomic RNA transcription after entry carry on with the participation of many nonstructural proteins such as Mpro (main protease or 3CLpro), PLpro (papain-like protease) and RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase). Then the structural proteins are translated, assembled into mature virions, and released via vesicles by exocytosis.

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