RAD51 (RAD51 Recombinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RAD51 include Mirror Movements 2 and Breast Cancer. Among its related pathways are Pathways in cancer and ATM Pathway. It plays an important role in homologous strand exchange, a key step in DNA repair through homologous recombination. Binds to single and double-stranded DNA and exhibits DNA-dependent ATPase activity. Catalyzes the recognition of homology and strand exchange between homologous DNA partners to form a joint molecule between a processed DNA break and the repair template.

An overview of RAD51

The Human Rad51 (Hs Rad51) gene is the homologous gene of E. coli RecA, mainly involved in the restoration and reorganization of DNA. Similar to RecA, it combines single chain and double chain DNA to show ATP dependency and repair DNA by homologous pairing and chain exchange between DNA molecules. In the process of homologous recombination, RAD51 needs to be completed together with other proteins, such as recombinant regulatory protein, recombinant coregulatory protein and its homologues.

Inhibition of RAD51

RI-1 covalently binds to 319-bit cysteine on the surface of RAD51 protein to inhibit the overexpression of RAD51 in cancer cells and is the necessary protein-protein interaction interface for the irreversible formation of loose fibers and the activity of recombinant enzymes. In vitro, RI-1 covalently binds to 319-bit cysteine on the surface of RAD51 protein, which may destabilize the interface of the DNA used to bind RAD51 monomers to fibers. After DNA is damaged, the molecule inhibits the formation of RAD51's subnucleus focal, while does not affect the formation of cloned protein A's nucleus focal. Finally, it strengthens the lethal effect of DNA cross-linking drugs in human cells. In vivo, RI-1 homologous RI-2 can be combined with RAD51 and inhibit the nucleus focal at the DNA damage.

RAD51 and diseases

RAD51 is closely related to the occurrence of tumor. RAD51 proteins interact directly or indirectly with three tumor suppressor genes, like p53, BRCA1 and BRCA2. High expression of RAD51 can enhance the tolerance of tumor cells to radiation. And in some malignant tumors, it can detect the deficiency of heterozygosity of 15q14-15 in the region of RAD51 gene, or the overexpression of RAD51 protein. Studies have shown that cancer tissues such as gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer and tongue squamous cell carcinoma have significantly higher expression of RAD51 than normal tissues.


1. Yuan Y, et al. (2004). Structure analysis of the expression regulation region of DNA repair gene Rad51. Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics.

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