Telomerase

Telomerase

Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes telomeric DNA sequences and almost universally provides the molecular basis for unlimited proliferative potential. Telomerase activity was found to be absent in most normal human somatic cells but present in over 90% of cancerous cells and in vitro-immortalized cells. Telomerase consists of two essential components: one is the functional RNA component, which serves as a template for telomeric DNA synthesis; the other is a catalytic protein with reverse transcriptase activity.

An overview of Telomerase

Telomerase is a basic nuclear protein reverse transcriptase, composed of catalytic proteins and RNA templates that synthesize DNA at the ends of chromosomes and give the cells the immortality of reproduction. Telomerase consists of two essential components: one is the functional RNA component, which serves as a template for telomeric DNA synthesis; the other is a catalytic protein with reverse transcriptase activity. And human telomerase consists of three components, including human telomerase RNA (hTR), telomerase-related protein 1 (hTP1), and telomerase reverse transcriptase (HTERT).

Inhibition of Telomerase

is a kind of toxic Dan cyanine dyes, which can selectively accumulate in tumor cells and play telomerase inhibition function.

Telomerase and diseases

Human telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT is one of the main constituents of human telomerase, and its expression is considered to be the key and speed-limiting step of the human telomerase activation. A number of laboratory studies have shown that the regulation of hTERT gene in transcription level is the main regulatory mechanism of hTERT expression. And it is also the main determinant of human telomerase activity, which is closely related to cell carcinogenesis. Recent studies have shown that TERT has neuroprotective effects on animal models of cell and brain damage. At the same time, TERT participates in the reduction of reactive oxygen and the DNA protection process in neuronal mitochondria. For example, in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease and the neuronal mitochondria of oxidative stress, TERT exists widely, suggesting that TERT plays a neuroprotective role by locating mitochondria.

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